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CLASS ANIMATION final

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ANIMATION

Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images to create an illusion of movement. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture. Humans require 16 HZ minimum; 24 Hz used for films; 30Hz used for TV.

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Each frame is a photograph, drawing, or computer generated image and each frame also differs slightly from the one before it. Viewing the frames in rapid succession implies “motion”.

How Animation Is Generated

Typical examples include
  • Keyframing (specified by hand)
  • Data-Driven (motion capture)
  • Procedural (rules, flocks)
  • Simulation (laws of physics)

History Of Animation

  • Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) Cave Paintings 

       Animals depicted with multiple legs in superimposed                 positions to convey the perception of motion.

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Zoetrope

 

  • As the cylinder spins, one looks through the slits at the pictures
  • One sees a rapid succession of images, producing the illusion of motion
  • The earliest known zoetrope was created in China around 180 CE (may have existed in China even 300 or so years before that)
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Phenakistoscope

 

  •  A spinning disc attached vertically to a handle
  • A series of drawings around the disc’s center
  • A series of equally spaced radial slits
  • The user spins the disc and looks through the moving slits at the disc’s reflection in a mirror
  • Invented by a Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau in 1841
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Praxinoscope

 

  • Improved on the zoetrope by replacing slits with an inner circle of mirrors
  • Invented in France in 1877 by CharlesÉmile Reynaud
  • In 1889, he invented an improved version that allowed one to project the images onto a screen
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Flip Book


  • The first form of animation to employ a linear sequence of images, rather than a circular set
  • In 1868, John Barnes Linnett patented it under the name kineograph (“moving picture“)
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Cinematograph


  • Fed the linear film through with a hand operated crank
  •  Projected the images onto a large screen
  • Invented in 1895 by the Lumiere brothers
  • Took their “film projector” around the world, charged admission for movies
  • Original films were 17 meters long and lasted 50 seconds
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Hollywood

  • Hollywood First film studio established in Hollywood in 1911, followed by 15 more later that year
  • Charlie Chaplin Studios established in 1917
  • Silent Film Era until 1929
  • 1st Academy Awards in 1929

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Stop Motion

  • Physically manipulate real-world objects and photograph them one frame at a time to create the illusion of movement
  • Create and tell non-physical non-real-world stories
  • Gumbasia was the first clay animation
  • A short film produced in 1953 and released on September 2, 1955
  • Produced by Art Clokey, who went on to create the classic series “Gumby” and “Davey and Goliath” using the same technique

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Cartoon

  • Produced in large numbers in the Golden Age of Hollywood; usually shown before feature films
  • First animated full length film: Snow White, 1937 (took 4 years to make)
  • Moved to TV in the 1950’s, when TV became popular – Flintstones: first successful prime time TV cartoon

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Spongebob Squarepants.

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